PANDA experiments addressing complex safety issues for current water reactors and small modular reactors
Joint project

PANDA vessel assembly (construction phase, 1993), PSI.


The PANDA project is a follow-up of the HYMERES-2 project, and its general objective is to advance the knowledge on the containment of thermal-hydraulics associated with the following four topics:

  • Topic 1: Extend the database at large-scale on flows interacting with containment of internal structures and on basic containment phenomena.
  • Topic 2: Extend the database on activation of PWR containment spray system.
  • Topic 3: Small modular reactor (SMR) system tests.
  • Topic 4: Solve remaining issues on pressure suppression pool and BWR systems.

The project aims at improving the knowledge on phenomena occurring in the containment of water reactors under postulated accidental conditions. Moreover, the PANDA experiments which will be related to SMRs will allow to create a new experimental database on phenomena relevant for assessing the computational tools used for the analyses of SMRs. The project is specifically aimed at topics of high safety relevance for both existing and future nuclear power plants, including SMRs.

In 2023, tests related to topic 1 have mostly been completed with tests to investigate jets or plumes impacting a steam generator model compartment and tests to address radiative heat transfer for complex conditions. 

The PANDA project is also the frame for a number of NEST fellowships. 


Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.

Project period

July 2021 to June 2025


EUR 5.41 million